Assessment to Solutions

Risk Factors


Risk factors are attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors associated with negative outcomes for organizations or units.  Higher unfavorable scores on risk factors are linked to a higher likelihood of negative outcomes, such as suicide, sexual harassment, and sexual assault and are also linked to a lower likelihood of positive outcomes,  such as higher performance, readiness, and retention.

Select each factor for a detailed definition and additional information.

Alcohol Impairing Memory


Alcohol impairing memory measures how often one was unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking alcohol.

DEOCS Questions

The following item is used to assess alcohol impairing memory on the DEOCS using a 5-point response scale from never to daily or almost daily:

  • During the past year, how often have you been unable to remember what happened the night before because you had been drinking?
Outcomes

Frequent memory loss due to alcohol is linked to a higher likelihood of sexual assault and suicide.

References

Basile, K. C., DeGue, S., Jones, K., Freire, K., Dills, J., Smith, S. G., & Raiford, J. L. (2016). STOP SV: A technical package to prevent sexual violence. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.

Breslin, R.A., Davis, L., Hylton, K., Hill, A., Klauberg, W. X., Petusky & M., Klahr, A. (2019) 2018 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Overview Report. (Report No. 2019-027). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics.

Breslin, R.A., Klahr, A., Hylton, K., Petusky, M., White, A. & Tercha, J., (2020) 2019 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Overview Report. (Report No. 2020-054), Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics.

Conley, A. H., Overstreet, C. M., Hawn, S. E., Kendler, K. S., Dick, D. M., & Amstadter, A. B. (2017). Prevalence and predictors of sexual assault among a college sample. Journal of American College Health, 65(1), 41–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2016.1235578

Hourani, L. L., Williams, J., Lattimore, P. K., Morgan, J. K., Hopkinson, S. G., Jenkins, L., & Cartwright, J. (2018). Workplace victimization risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior among active duty military personnel. Journal of Affective Disorders, 236, 45–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.095

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Science and Technology Organization. (2018). Military suicide prevention: Report prepared for NATO leadership (TR-HRM-218). Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2rbkOZs

Ringer, F. B., Soberay, K. A., Rogers, M. L., Hagan, C. R., Chu, C., Schneider, M., Podlogar, M. C., Witte, T., Holm-Denoma, J., Plant, E. A., Gutierrez, P. M., & Joiner, T. E. (2018). Initial validation of brief measures of suicide risk factors: Common data elements used by the Military Suicide Research Consortium. Psychological Assessment, 30(6), 767–778. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000519

Samuelson, H., Severance, L., Trump-Steele, R., Luchman, J & Klahr, A. (In preparation). 2018 Contextual risk factors associated with sexual assault in the active duty. (Report No. not yet assigned). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics.

Saxena, S., Krug, E. G., Chestnov, O., & World Health Organization (Eds.). (2014). Preventing suicide: A global imperative. World Health Organization.

 

 

 

 

Binge Drinking


Binge drinking measures how often one consumes four or more drinks (for females) and five or more drinks (for males) on one occasion.

DEOCS Questions

The following item is used to assess binge drinking on the DEOCS using a 5-point response scale from never to daily or almost daily:

  • How often do you have 4 or more drinks (if you are a woman) or 5 or more drinks (if you are a man) on one occasion?
Outcomes

Frequent binge drinking is linked to a higher likelihood of sexual assault and suicide.

References

Basile, K. C., DeGue, S., Jones, K., Freire, K., Dills, J., Smith, S. G., & Raiford, J. L. (2016). STOP SV: A technical package to prevent sexual violence. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.

Breslin, R.A., Davis, L., Hylton, K., Hill, A., Klauberg, W. X., Petusky & M., Klahr, A. (2019) 2018 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Overview Report. (Report No. 2019-027). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics.

Breslin, R.A., Klahr, A., Hylton, K., Petusky, M., White, A. & Tercha, J., (2020) 2019 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Overview Report. (Report No. 2020-054), Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics.

Conley, A. H., Overstreet, C. M., Hawn, S. E., Kendler, K. S., Dick, D. M., & Amstadter, A. B. (2017). Prevalence and predictors of sexual assault among a college sample. Journal of American College Health, 65(1), 41–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2016.1235578

Hourani, L. L., Williams, J., Lattimore, P. K., Morgan, J. K., Hopkinson, S. G., Jenkins, L., & Cartwright, J. (2018). Workplace victimization risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior among active duty military personnel. Journal of Affective Disorders, 236, 45–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.095

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Science and Technology Organization. (2018). Military suicide prevention: Report prepared for NATO leadership (TR-HRM-218). Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2rbkOZs

Ringer, F. B., Soberay, K. A., Rogers, M. L., Hagan, C. R., Chu, C., Schneider, M., Podlogar, M. C., Witte, T., Holm-Denoma, J., Plant, E. A., Gutierrez, P. M., & Joiner, T. E. (2018). Initial validation of brief measures of suicide risk factors: Common data elements used by the Military Suicide Research Consortium. Psychological Assessment, 30(6), 767–778. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000519

Samuelson, H., Severance, L., Trump-Steele, R., Luchman, J & Klahr, A. (In preparation). 2018 Contextual risk factors associated with sexual assault in the active duty. (Report No. not yet assigned). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics.

Saxena, S., Krug, E. G., Chestnov, O., & World Health Organization (Eds.). (2014). Preventing suicide: A global imperative. World Health Organization.

 

Passive Leadership

 


Passive leadership involves avoiding and neglecting mistakes or problems until they can no longer be ignored.

DEOCS Questions

The DEOCS asks participants to rate their organization’s leader and senior enlisted leader on passive leadership. The following items are used to assess passive leadership using a 5-point response scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree:

  • My unit’s/organization’s leader takes early action in addressing problems.
  • My unit’s/organization’s leader addresses problems when brought to their attention.
  • My unit’s senior NCO/senior enlisted leader takes early action in addressing problems.
  • My unit’s senior NCO/senior enlisted leader addresses problems when brought to their attention.

Note: Survey questions may differ slightly depending on whether the organization is a military unit, military academy, or civilian organization. Please see the sample survey for each population on the home page of the Assessment to Solutions site for exact wording.

Outcomes

Organizations with passive leaders are linked to lower levels of readiness and a higher likelihood of sexual harassment.

References

Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (2004). Multifactor leadership questionnaire manual and sampler set. (3rd ed.). Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden.

Lee, J. (2018). Passive leadership and sexual harassment: Roles of observed hostility and workplace gender ratio. Personnel Review, 47(3), 594–612. https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-07-2016-0169

Smith, T. D., Eldridge, F., & DeJoy, D. M. (2016). Safety-specific transformational and passive leadership influences on firefighter safety climate perceptions and safety behavior outcomes. Safety Science, 86, 92–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2016.02.019

 

 

Racially Harassing Behaviors


These behaviors describe unwelcome or offensive experiences of organization members based on their race or ethnicity.

DEOCS Questions

The following items are used to assess racially harassing behaviors using a 4-point response scale from never to often:

  • How often does someone from your unit/organization tell racial/ethnic jokes that make you uncomfortable, angry, or upset?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization express stereotypes about your racial/ethnic group that make you uncomfortable, angry, or upset?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization use offensive racial/ethnic terms that make you uncomfortable, angry, or upset?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization make insults about racial/ethnic groups that make you uncomfortable, angry, or upset?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization show you a lack of respect because of your race/ethnicity?

Note: Survey questions may differ slightly depending on whether the organization is a military unit, military academy, or civilian organization. Please see the sample survey for each population on the home page of the Assessment to Solutions site for exact wording.

Outcomes

The presence of racially harassing behaviors in organizations is linked to higher rates of legally-defined racial/ethnic harassment (in which the behaviors are sufficiently persistent and severe), as well as lower levels of readiness and retention.

 

Sexist Behaviors


These behaviors describe situations where someone is mistreated or excluded based on their sex or gender.
 

DEOCS Questions

The following item is used to assess sexist behaviors on the DEOCS using a 4-point response scale from never to often:

  • How often does someone from your unit/organization mistreat, ignore, exclude, or insult you because of your gender?

Note: Survey questions may differ slightly depending on whether the organization is a military unit, military academy, or civilian organization. Please see the sample survey for each population on the home page of the Assessment to Solutions site for exact wording.

Outcomes

The presence of sexist behaviors in organizations is linked to higher rates of legally-defined gender discrimination (in which the experiences harmed or limited their career) and sexual assault, as well as lower levels of readiness.

 

 

Sexually Harassing Behaviors


Sexually harassing behaviors assesses the presence of unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and offensive comments or gestures of a sexual nature.

DEOCS Questions

The following items are used to assess sexually harassing behaviors on the DEOCS using a 4-point response scale from never to often:

  • How often does someone from your unit/organization tell sexual jokes that make you uncomfortable, angry, or upset?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization embarrass, anger, or upset you by suggesting that you do not act how a man or a woman is supposed to act? 
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization display, show, or send sexually explicit materials (such as pictures or videos) that make you uncomfortable, angry, or upset?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization ask you questions about your sex life or sexual interests that make you uncomfortable, angry, or upset?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization make sexual comments about your appearance or body that make you uncomfortable, angry, or upset?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization make attempts to establish unwanted romantic or sexual relationships with you?  These attempts could range from asking you out on a date to asking you for sex or a "hookup."
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization intentionally touch you in unwanted sexual ways?

Note: Survey questions may differ slightly depending on whether the organization is a military unit, military academy, or civilian organization. Please see the sample survey for each population on the home page of the Assessment to Solutions site for exact wording.

Outcomes

The presence of sexually harassing behaviors in organizations is linked to a higher likelihood of legally-defined sexual harassment (in which the behaviors are sufficiently persistent and severe), gender discrimination, sexual assault, suicide, and lower levels of readiness.

References

Breslin, R.A., Davis, L., Hylton, K., Hill, A., Klauberg, W. X., Petusky & M., Klahr, A. (2019) 2018 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Overview Report. (Report No. 2019-027). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics.

Breslin, R.A., Klahr, A., Hylton, K., Petusky, M., White, A. & Tercha, J., (2020) 2019 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Overview Report. (Report No. 2020-054), Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics.

Chan, D. K.-S., Chow, S. Y., Lam, C. B., & Cheung, S. F. (2008). Examining The Job-Related, Psychological, and Physical Outcomes of Workplace Sexual Harassment: A Meta-Analytic Review. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32(4), 362–376. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.00451.x

Daniel, S., Hylton, K., Peebles, H., Busselberg, S., McMillan, A., McGrth, D., & Klahr, A. (2020). 2018 Department of Defense Civilian Employee Workplace and Gender Relations Survey: Methodology Report (OPA Report No. 2019-064). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics.

Davis, L,. Klauberg, W. X., Namrow, N., Petusky, M., Claros, Y., Hylton, K., Creel, A., Klahr, A. (2019) 2018 Service Academy Gender Relations Survey: Overview report. (Report No. 2018-075). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics.

Griffith, J. (2019). The sexual harassment–suicide connection in the U.S. military: contextual effects of hostile work environment and trusted unit leaders. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 49(1), 41–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/sltb.12401

Hutagalung, F., & Ishak, Z. (2012). Sexual harassment: A predictor to job satisfaction and work stress among women employees. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 65, 723–730. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.190

Lapierre, L. M., Spector, P. E., & Leck, J. D. (2005). Sexual versus nonsexual workplace aggression and victims overall job satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(2), 155–169. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.10.2.155

Millegan, J., Milburn, E. K., LeardMann, C. A., Street, A. E., Williams, D., Trone, D. W., & Crum‐Cianflone, N. F. (2015). Recent sexual trauma and adverse health and occupational outcomes among U.S. service women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28(4), 298–306. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22028

Schell, T.L.,Cefalu, M. & Morral, A.R. (2019). Development of a short form Measure of sexual harassment risk in the military: Findings from the RAND military workplace study. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR2031.html.

Willness, C. R., Steel, P., & Lee, K. (2007). A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of workplace sexual harassment. Personnel Psychology, 60(1), 127–162. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00067.x

 

Stress


Stress measures the feeling of emotional strain or pressure.

DEOCS Questions

The following items are used to assess stress on the DEOCS using a 4-point response scale from never to often:

  • In the past month, how often have you felt nervous or stressed?
  • In the past month, how often have you felt that you were unable to control the important things in your life? 
  • In the past month, how often have you been angered because of things that were outside of your control? 
  • In the past month, how often have you found that you could not cope with all of the things you had to do?
Outcomes

Higher levels of stress are linked to higher likelihood of suicide and suicidal ideation, and lower levels of readiness and retention.

References

Kim, H. M., Levine, D. S., Pfeiffer, P. N., Blow, A. J., Marchiondo, C., Walters, H., & Valenstein, M. (2017). Postdeployment suicide risk increases over a 6-month period: Predictors of increased risk among midwestern Army National Guard soldiers. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 47(4), 421–435. https://doi.org/10.1111/sltb.12303

Lebares, C. C., Guvva, E. V., Ascher, N. L., O’Sullivan, P. S., Harris, H. W., & Epel, E. S. (2018). Burnout and stress among us surgery residents: Psychological distress and resilience. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 226(1), 80–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2017.10.010

 

Toxic Leadership


Toxic leadership behaviors include disregard for subordinate input, defiance of logic or predictability, and self-promoting tendencies.

DEOCS Questions

The DEOCS asks participants to rate their immediate supervisor and senior enlisted leader on toxic leadership. The following items are used to assess toxic leadership using a 5-point response scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree:

  • My immediate supervisor ridicules subordinates.
  • My immediate supervisor has explosive outbursts.
  • My immediate supervisor has a sense of personal entitlement.
  • My immediate supervisor acts only in the best interest of their own advancement.
  • My immediate supervisor ignores ideas that are contrary to their own.
  • My unit’s senior NCO/senior enlisted leader acts only in the best interest of their next promotion.
  • My unit’s senior NCO/senior enlisted leader ridicules people in my unit.
  • My unit’s senior NCO/senior enlisted leader has explosive outbursts.
  • My unit’s senior NCO/senior enlisted leader has a sense of personal entitlement.
  • My unit’s senior NCO/senior enlisted leader ignores ideas that are contrary to their own.

Note: Survey questions may differ slightly depending on whether the organization is a military unit, military academy, or civilian organization. Please see the sample survey for each population on the home page of the Assessment to Solutions site for exact wording.

Outcomes

Organizations with toxic leaders are linked to lower organizational commitment, lower retention, and less respectful behaviors between members.

References

Gallus, J. A., Walsh, B. M., van Driel, M., Gouge, M. C., & Antolic, E. (2013). Intolerable cruelty: A multilevel examination of the impact of toxic leadership on U.S. military units and service members. Military Psychology, 25, 588-601.

Workplace Hostility


Workplace hostility measures the presence of aggressive behaviors directed at another individual while at work. This aggression includes: physical intimidation, verbal intimidation, spreading rumors or negative comments about a person to undermine their status, and persistent criticism of work or effort.

DEOCS Questions

The following items are used to assess workplace hostility on the DEOCS using a 4-point response scale from never to often:

  • How often does someone from your unit/organization intentionally interfere with your work performance?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization take credit for work or ideas that were yours?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization gossip or talk about you?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization use insults, sarcasm, or gestures to humiliate you?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization not provide you with information and assistance when needed?
  • How often does someone from your unit/organization yell when they are angry?
Outcomes

Organizations with workplace hostility are linked to lower performance, lower levels of readiness, and a higher likelihood of sexual harassment, sexual assault, and racial/ethnic discrimination.

References

Breslin, R.A., Davis, L., Hylton, K., Hill, A., Klauberg, W. X., Petusky & M., Klahr, A. (2019) 2018 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Overview Report. (Report No. 2019-027). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics.

Breslin, R.A., Klahr, A., Hylton, K., Petusky, M., White, A. & Tercha, J., (2020) 2019 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Overview Report. (Report No. 2020-054),

Brown, J., Gouseti, I., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2018). Sexual harassment experienced by police staff serving in England, Wales and Scotland: A descriptive exploration of incidence, antecedents and harm. The Police Journal, 91(4), 356–374. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032258X17750325

Daniel, S., Hylton, K., Peebles, H., Busselberg, S., McMillan, A., McGrth, D., & Klahr, A. (2020). 2018 Department of Defense Civilian Employee Workplace and Gender Relations Survey: Methodology Report (OPA Report No. 2019-064). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Department of Defense Office of People Analytics.

Lapierre, L. M., Spector, P. E., & Leck, J. D. (2005). Sexual versus nonsexual workplace aggression and victims overall job satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(2), 155–169. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.10.2.155

Tinkler, J. E., & Zhao, J. (2019). The sexual harassment of federal employees: Gender, leadership status, and organizational tolerance for abuses of power. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 37. https://doi.org/10.1093/jopart/muz037

 

 

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